• ByPaige Duggins-Clay, J.D.eMakiah Lyons• IDRA Bulletin • May 2023 •
To develop safe and healthy school environments, schools must be able to respond to bullying and harassment appropriately and take deliberate steps to prevent it. This includes incidents where bullying is based on or related to a student's identity, such as race, ethnicity, national origin, sex, gender, religion or disability.
Students across the country are increasingly reporting alarming examples of identity-based bullying in schools – fueled in part by widespread misinformation resulting from attacks on diversity, equality and inclusion in education.
For example, black students in Lubbock, Texas, were called the "N-word" almost daily, often called "porch monkeys," forced to listen to other students make "bullying noises" at them in class, and told to "go and picking cotton". Students at a high school in Lubbock were subjected to the sound of whips cracking as they walked through the hallways. Another black student, out of breath during football practice, was taunted by other students who jeered, "He can't breathe like George Floyd." (IDRA, 2022)
Such incidents are not limited to Texas. We're also seeing reports in Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida, Massachusetts, Missouri and New York.
Bullying and harassment compromise students' ability to learn and damage school climate, leaving many students, staff, and communities feeling unsafe and disconnected (Craven, 2022). We must ensure that students, school communities and parents have the tools they need to prevent and address identity-based bullying and can support all students affected by it.
Identity-based bullying, hate crimes and harassment are on the rise in schools
According to NCES, 22% of students ages 12-18 were bullied in 2019 (2021). While this in itself is troubling, looking at this data from a separate lens underscores the urgency of identifying, preventing, and responding appropriately to bullying: Students increasingly report being bullied based on their race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation and religion (Alvis, et al., 2023; Brion-Meisels, et al., 2022).
The United States Department of Justice defines identity-based bullying as bullying that occurs as a result of a single significant act or pattern of acts by one or more students that is based on or targets race, ethnicity, color, national origin, sex, fact gender or apparent status as a student, religion or disability (Lahdon & Rapp, 2021). This includes bullying based on association with a person or group of people with these characteristics.
Unfortunately, cases of identity-based bullying, harassment and hate crimes are on the rise. A 2021 report by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) found that one in four students have been bullied because of their race, national origin, religion, disability, gender or sexual orientation. And one in four students reported seeing hateful words or symbols (such as those referring to racial or homophobic slurs) written in their schools. Another report also found that 23% of students reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school (Wang, et al., 2020).
Pupils are also bullied on the basis of their religion. While many religious groups report this type of bullying, research from the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding found that Muslim (60%) and Jewish (58%) students are more likely to experience religious discrimination, as are 43% of white evangelicals. , 29% of Protestants and 26% of Catholics (Mogahed & Ikramullah, 2020).
LGBTQ+ students experience identity-based bullying and harassment at alarming rates. According to a 2021 national survey, 82% of LGBTQ+ students reported feeling unsafe at school because of at least one of their real or perceived personal characteristics—including 51% of LGBTQ+ students who felt unsafe because of their sexual orientation, 43% because of their gender expression and 40% because of their gender (Kosciw, et al., 2021).
Also worryingly, the number of hate crimes in schools has almost doubled in recent years: in 2015-16 the number was approximately 3,166. It increased to 5,732 in 2017-18 (OJJDP, 2022). The most common bias motivation for hate crimes in schools was race or color.
Young people who reported being victims of a hate crime were victims of hate crimes motivated by race/ethnicity and ancestry. Black children remain the primary targets of these harmful acts, accounting for 69% of single bias cases reported to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program in 2020 (FBI, 2020).
Given the alarming rate at which these harmful incidents are increasingly occurring, school efforts to prevent and respond to bullying must take into account the specific ways in which bullying targets students based on their identity and the magnified harm experienced by students . and the school community experiences. when bullying behavior is motivated by prejudice or discrimination.
Identity-based bullying increases the risk of psychological problems and exacerbates existing trauma
Effective handling of bullying and harassment is essential to ensure school safety and address young people's mental health. Bullying is associated with negative health outcomes such as depression and suicide, which may be exacerbated when students experience bullying based on their identity (Alvis, et al., 2023; Kosciw, et al., 2021; Lutrick, et al., 2020; Garnett et al. al., 2014).
Decades of research have shown that youth of color are at greater risk of being bullied, which may be due to experiences with discriminatory forms of bullying where a person's identity or identities are targeted with acts of verbal and/or physical aggression. (Alvis, et al., 2023; Galán, et al., 2021; Peskin, et al., 2006).
The data is likely an understatement, as a recent study found that Black and Latino youth reported more experiences of bullying behavior (eg, being threatened or beaten up by peers) but were less likely to endorse that they were “bullied” (Lai & Kao, 2018) compared to white youth.
As recently noted by researchers, “Underreporting of bullying victimization among youth of color may be due to cultural stigma and fear of backlash from authority figures who tend to enact harsher punishments and over-politicize Black and Latino communities” (Alvis, et al. al., 2023 with reference to Rios, 2011).
While all forms of bullying are harmful and must be prevented and remedied, "identity-based bullying can have more harmful effects on mental health than general bullying" because "identity-based bullying is often experienced as more threatening and serious. , can be experienced. as a violent attack on one's sense of self and is inherently humiliating and personal" (Alvis, et al., 2023).
Additionally, because youth of color are more likely to experience multiple types of traumatic events throughout their lives, they are at greater risk for psychological symptoms in response to identity-based bullying (Alvis, et al., 2023; Douglas, et al., 2021).
As young people are particularly vulnerable to social and emotional harm during adolescence, identity-based victimization must be addressed quickly, effectively and with attention to the specific harm caused by discriminatory bullying (Alvis, et al., 2023; Russell, et al., 2012 ).
Leaders must act to prohibit and prevent identity-based bullying
School districts often lack the necessary tools to properly deal with harassment and bullying. As the number of cases increases, schools' failure to respond appropriately compromises student and school safety, endangers student mental health, and can affect the overall school climate and hostile environment.
Researchers continue to emphasize the importance of addressing identity and the impact of discrimination when addressing bullying and implementing bullying prevention programs and initiatives (Alvis, et al., 2023; Russell, et al., 2012).
Teachers and staff must be trained to prevent bullying and react appropriately when it occurs. A study of outcomes for youth who experience identity-based bullying as opposed to more general bullying shows that supportive teachers help mitigate negative outcomes for students who experience general bullying (Mulvey, et al., 2018).
Researchers also continue to emphasize the need to collect better and more comprehensive data on bullying to ensure more effective intervention and prevention measures, especially for students whose identity or identities may make them more susceptible to being bullied (Mulvey, et al., 2018 ; GAO , 2012).
Finally, schools should have protocols in place to ensure that investigations into suspected or reported bullying are thorough, prompt and impartial (OCR, 2023; 2017; 2010; 1994). In fact, schools are violating the law when they fail to implement meaningful prevention and intervention strategies to stop discriminatory behavior. At the same time, schools should assess potential mental health or academic problems and provide support to students experiencing them (Alvis, et al., 2023; Cornell & Limber, 2015).
IDRA is available to partner with schools to establish proactive strategies to build safe, welcoming and supportive environments for all students. In addition, IDRA's free technical assistance toolkit, Interrupting Bullying and Harassment in Schools (https://idra.news/webInterrupt), provides resources for school leaders and policy makers, including research on effective and ineffective strategies.
Alvis L., Douglas, R.D., Oosterhoff, B., Gaylord-Harden, N.K., & Kaplow, J.B. (2023).Identity-based bullying and mental health among Black and Latino youth: the moderating role of emotional suppression. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Brion-Meisels, G., O'Neil, E., & Bishop, S. (2022).Literature review – Bullying and harassment in schools. HYDRA.
Cornell, D., & Limber, S. (maj 2015).Law and policy on the concept of bullying in school. American Psychological Association.
Douglas, R., Alvis, L., Rooney, E., Busby, D., & Kaplow, J. (2021)Racial, ethnic, and neighborhood income differences in childhood trauma and grief reactions: Exploring possible indirect effects through exposure to trauma and grief. Journal of Traumatic Stress34(5), 929-942.
Galan , C.A. , Stokes , L.R. , Szoko , N. , Abebe , K.Z. , & Culyba , A.J. (2021).Exploring the experiences and perpetration of identity-based bullying among youth by race/ethnicity and other marginalized identities. JAMA Network Open, 4(7), e2116364.
GAO. (2021).K-12 Education: Students' experiences of bullying, hate speech, hate crimes, and victimization in schools. Report to the chairman of the Education and Work Commission in the Chamber of Deputies. state accounting office.
GAO. (2012).School bullying: the extent of legal protection for vulnerable groups needs to be evaluated more fully.The State Accounting Office.
Garnett, B.R., Masyn, K.E., Austin, S.B., Miller, M., Williams, D.R., Viswanath, K. (agosto de 2014).The intersectionality of youth discrimination and bullying characteristics: an applied latent class analysis. Journal for Youth and Youth.
IDRA. (13. December 2022). IDRA,Lubbock NAACP joins Slaton and Lubbock families in demanding an end to school-based racial discrimination - complaints filed with Office of Civil Rights. HYDRA.
Kosciw, J.G., Clark, C.M., & Menard, L. (2021).2021 School Climate Report - The Experiences of LGBTQ+ Youth in Our Nation's Schools. GLAS.
Lahdon, T., & Rapp, S. (2021).Prevention of hate crimes among young people and identity-based bullying. US Department of Justice.
Lai, T., & Kao, G. (2018). Hitting, stealing and beating down (but not bullied):Underreporting of bullying by minority and male students. Journal for Youth and Youth47(3), 619-635.
Lutrick, K., Clark, R., Nuño, V.L., Bauman, S., & Carvajal, S. (2020).Latinx bullying and depression in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Systematic reviews.
Mogahed, D., & Ikramullah, E. (2020).American Muslim Poll 2020: Amid Pandemic and Protest Presenting Five Years of Civic Engagement Trends. Department of Politics and Social Understanding.
Mulvey, K.L., Hoffman, A., Gönültaş, S., & Hope, E.C. (2018).Understanding experiences of bullying and bias-based bullying: what matters and for whom? American Psychological Association.
Peskin, M.F., Tortolero, S.R., & Markham, C.M. (2006).Bullying and victimization among Black and Hispanic youth. Youth41(163), 467-484.
Russell, S., Sinclair, K., Poteat. V., & Koenig, B. (8. februar 2012).Adolescent health and harassment based on discriminatory bias. American Journal of Public Health, 102, nr. 3.
Wang, K., Chen, Y., Zhang, J., & Oudekerk, B.A. (2020).School Crime and Safety Indicators: 2019. US Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences.
Paige Duggins-Clay, J.D., is IDRA's Chief Legal Analyst. Comments and questions can be directed to her via email at email@example.com. Makiah Lyons is an education lawyer at IDRA. Comments and questions can be directed to her via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
[©2023, IDRA. This article originally appeared in the May 2023 issue of the Intercultural Development Research Association's IDRA newsletter. Permission to reproduce this article is granted provided the article is reprinted in its entirety and due credit is given to IDRA and the author.]
The 3 R's To Bullying Prevention for Students with Special Educational Needs: Recognize, Respond, and Report.What is the effect of bullying on students academic performance research? ›
Students who are bullied show less academic improvement due to a fear of standing out. As a result, teachers often identify those students as low achievers or unmotivated learners. These students may then receive less attention from teachers which only pushes them further down the academic rankings in their school.What limits the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs? ›
Curriculum demands limit time for training, implementation, and prompt responses to bullying. Principals failing to back teachers up, ambivalent colleagues, uncooperative parents, and a lack of evidence reduce their commitment to implementation. Promising programs are discontinued in favor of new initiatives.What are the 6 R's of bullying prevention? ›
The 6Rs of bullying prevention: Rules, Recognize, Report, Respond, Refuse, and Replace, are not a program, but a comprehensive process for reducing bullying from the inside out, involving the entire school community.What are the 3 Rs that we can use to respond to student behavior? ›
We refer to these processes as the 3R's of Early Learning: Relationships, Repetition, Routines ™. These processes are important because they focus on how children learn in addition to what they learn.What were the 3 Rs in school? ›
Like many of you, I presume, I grew up hearing and learning about the all important "3 R's" of education—Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic.What are the top three factors students have reported affecting their individual academic performance? ›
- An Uncomfortable Learning Environment. ...
- Family Background. ...
- Learning Infrastructure. ...
- Difficulty In Understanding. ...
- Teacher-Student Ratio. ...
- Information Overload. ...
- Performance Pressure. ...
- Unhealthy Lifestyle.
Lower academic success can cause lifelong, negative psychosocial and economic consequences. In sexually abused children, cognitive ability and memory scores as well as academic achievement are lower than their peers.What is the relationship between bullying victimization and academic performance? ›
In fact, bullying victimisation has been found to negatively influence students' school relatedness, such that bullied students tend to feel less connected to their school and, in turn, tend to achieve poorly academically .How effective are anti-bullying programs in improving students self worth? ›
Antibullying programs are effective in reducing bullying perpetration outcomes by roughly 18–19% and bullying victimization by roughly 15–16%. Variability in the effectiveness of antibullying programs was associated with differences in methodological designs, types of programs and geographical regions.
Target interventions typically include teaching social skills such as friendship, assertiveness and anger management skills. Interventions for targets may be done one-on-one or in a support group. Targets should not be re-victimized by bring the target and perpetrator together to try to resolve the situation.What makes an anti-bullying program effective? ›
In designing effective anti-bullying programs, schools need to avoid the kind of negative message that students are likely to tune out. This means using more positively focused motivational messages that are aimed at encouraging students to stand up for themselves.What does the research say about bully prevention programs? ›
Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs.Do anti-bullying programs help or hurt? ›
Specifically, it was found that school-based anti-bullying programs were effective overall in reducing school-bullying perpetration by approximately 19%–20% and school-bullying victimization by approximately 15%–16%.What are examples of anti-bullying policies? ›
Statement of Intent
As a school we take bullying and its impact seriously. Bullying of any form is not tolerated in our school, whether carried out by a child or an adult. Staff, children and parents or carers will be made aware of the school's position on bullying. Bullying behaviour is unacceptable in any form.
Every instance of challenging behavior has 3 common components, an Antecedent, a Behavior, and a Consequence. These are known as the ABC's of behavior.What are behavior intervention strategies? ›
Positive behavior intervention strategies include designing routines, implementing silent signals, assigning tasks, and setting expectations. These strategies help encourage positive behaviors from individuals while simultaneously suppressing negative behaviors.What are the 4cs in education? ›
The four C's of 21st Century skills are:
Critical thinking. Creativity. Collaboration. Communication.
These skills are often referred to as the 3Rs - reading, writing and arithmetic.Which of the three Rs are the most important? ›
Reducing is the most effective of the three R's. The second most effective strategy for environmental stewardship is to reuse. Before throwing something in the garbage, it helps to think about how that item might be reused.
- Instruction quality and delivery style. It shouldn't come as a surprise that the quality of instruction in the classroom is an important factor in student achievement. ...
- Class size. ...
- Parent involvement. ...
- Relationships with peers. ...
- Assessment. ...
- School facilities.
- Socio-economic factors. Age - At a young age, children are more enthusiastic about their education and performance. ...
- Parental background. ...
- Peer. ...
- Teacher's effectiveness. ...
- Facilities at school.
Research has shown that the top four factors that impact student achievement are: classroom management, teaching for learning, home and parent involvement, and believing that all students can learn.How does emotional abuse affect students? ›
Children who experience chronic emotional abuse can suffer from anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, PTSD and suicide. Childhood emotional abuse is strongly correlated with depression, anxiety disorders, attachment problems and substance abuse.What are 5 effects of abuse? ›
developmental delay, eating disorders and physical ailments. permanent physical injuries or death. violent, aggressive or criminal behaviour or other behavioural problems. drug and alcohol abuse and high-risk sexual behaviour.How does trauma affect student performance? ›
According to the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, chronic exposure to traumatic events, especially during a child's early years, can: Adversely affect attention, memory, and cognition. Reduce a child's ability to focus, organize, and process information. Interfere with effective problem solving and planning.What are the psychological impacts of student bullying qualitative research? ›
Evidence from several longitudinal studies on the effects of bullying suggests that experiencing bullying, especially in adolescence, can severely impair a person's physical, psychological, and social functioning, leading to risky behaviors , anxiety , depression [3,10], lower levels of academic achievement [11, ...What are the effects of bullying forms on adolescent mental health? ›
Mental Health Effects of Bullying
It can lead to physical injury, social or emotional problems and in some cases, even death. Bullied children and teens are more likely to experience depression, anxiety and sometimes long-term damage to self-esteem. Victims often feel lonely.
Results revealed that personality traits were significantly related to academic achievements. Accordingly, students with bad behavior registered lowest mark while students with good behavior registered high performance.Why is self control important to achievement in school? ›
Self-control also predicts standardized achievement test scores, even when controlling for measured intelligence and family socioeconomic status (Alexander et al.
These two studies showed that youth with a lower-risk personality profile for the development of delinquency benefited most from the intervention.What is the general objective of the study bullying? ›
Objective: Recognize and identify incidences of bullying and identify its various types, styles and forms. Contents: Strategies for Identifying Bully Behavior at School.What are the 3 factors that motivate perpetrators of cyberbullying? ›
- Cyberbullies Are Out for Revenge.
- Cyberbullies Blame the Victim.
- Cyberbullies Are Bored.
- Cyberbullies Cave Under Peer Pressure.
- Cyberbullies Think Everyone Is Doing It.
- Cyberbullies Are Power-Hungry.
According to research, they don't have much of an impact at all. In fact, bullying and anti-bullying efforts have almost synonymous results because both have negative effects on people's futures. As bullied children grow older, their social and emotional lives tend to be less content than people who were not bullied.What is the most researched and best known bullying prevention program available today? ›
What Is the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program? As stated earlier, the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) is the most researched and best-known bullying prevention program available today.What is the research about effect of bullying on academic performance? ›
Students who are bullied show less academic improvement due to a fear of standing out. As a result, teachers often identify those students as low achievers or unmotivated learners. These students may then receive less attention from teachers which only pushes them further down the academic rankings in their school.How effective are school bullying intervention programs a meta analysis of intervention research? ›
A prior meta-analysis (Gaffney, Ttofi, & Farrington, 2019) found that intervention programs are effective in reducing school-bullying perpetration by approximately 19-20% and school-bullying victimization by approximately 15-16%.What is the research design of bullying? ›
Bullying research has traditionally been dominated by largescale cohort studies focusing on the personality traits of bullies and victims. These studies focus on bullying prevalence, risk and protective factors, and negative outcomes. A limitation of this approach is that it does not explain why bullying happens.What are the outcomes of anti-bullying campaigns? ›
Results The number of bullied children decreased by 25% in the intervention group compared with the control group (relative risk, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.98). The intervention group also showed a decline in the scale scores of victimization (−1.06 vs 0.28; P<.What is a sample of school based anti bullying policy? ›
Bullying of any form is not tolerated in our school, whether carried out by a child or an adult. Staff, children and parents or carers will be made aware of the school's position on bullying. Bullying behaviour is unacceptable in any form.
A student shall not intimidate, harass, or bully another student through words or actions. Such behavior includes: direct physical contact, such as hitting or shoving; verbal assaults, such as teasing or name-calling; and social isolation or manipulation.What are the three R's and what are they used for? ›
Reduce means to cut back on the amount of trash we generate. Reuse means to find new ways to use things that otherwise would have been thrown out. Recycle means to turn something old and useless (like plastic milk jugs) into something new and useful (like picnic benches, playground equipment and recycling bins).What are the three R's and what are they responsible for? ›
The three R's - reduce, reuse and recycle - are three approaches, and the most environmentally preferred. Reducing, reusing and recycling waste helps save landfill space by keeping useful materials out.What 3 resources would an anti bullying club make available to students who were targets of harassment? ›
- Scholastic resources to combat bullying.
- National Bully Prevention Center.
- Social, Emotional Learning and Bullying.
- National School Climate Center.
- MindUp Program.
Reducing is the most effective of the three R's. The second most effective strategy for environmental stewardship is to reuse. Before throwing something in the garbage, it helps to think about how that item might be reused.What is the effectiveness of the 3 R's? ›
“The three R's – reduce, reuse and recycle – all help to cut down on the amount of waste we throw away. They conserve natural resources, landfill space and energy. Plus, the three R's save land and money that communities must use to dispose of waste in landfills.Which of the 3 R's has the most positive impact on the environment? ›
Recycling, the third “R,” has been at the forefront of waste management strategies and is often the most touted method for environmental protection.What ended the Great Depression? ›
When Japan attacked the U.S. Naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, the United States found itself in the war it had sought to avoid for more than two years. Mobilizing the economy for world war finally cured the depression.What are the three 3Rs that help you create a more sustainable world? ›
The principle of reducing waste, reusing and recycling resources and products is often called the "3Rs." Reducing means choosing to use things with care to reduce the amount of waste generated.Which of the 3Rs should be done first and most often? ›
"Reduce" means using fewer resources in the first place. This is the most effective of the three Rs and the place to begin.
According to research, they don't have much of an impact at all. In fact, bullying and anti-bullying efforts have almost synonymous results because both have negative effects on people's futures. As bullied children grow older, their social and emotional lives tend to be less content than people who were not bullied.How effective is bullying prevention? ›
Research shows that both students and educators benefit from bullying prevention efforts. Results from a comprehensive and systematic review of research on the effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying show that they effectively reduce bullying by 20 to 23 percent and victimization by 17 to 20 percent.What seeks to protect students from harassment? ›
Title IX protects every student from sexual harassment or gender-based harassment in schools.What type of movement is anti-bullying? ›
The anti-bullying movement is an organized effort to combat bullying. A timeline of the history of the anti-bullying movement began after the Columbine Massacre of 1999. One month after the tragedy in Columbine, the state of Georgia became the first state to enact an anti-bullying law.